what happened in 1648

What Happened In 1648? Peace of Westphalia, European settlements of 1648, which brought to an end the Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Dutch and the German phase of the Thirty Years’ War. The peace was negotiated, from 1644, in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück. The Spanish-Dutch treaty was signed on January 30, 1648.

What battle happened in 1648? The Thirty Years’ War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire from 1618 to 1648. Considered one of the most destructive wars in European history, estimates of total deaths caused by the conflict range from 4.5 to 8 million, while some areas of Germany experienced population declines of over 50%.

What was England like 1648? In mid-1648, England experienced a further eruption of violence known as the Second Civil War. Rebellions in favour of the king broke out in many parts of England and Wales, and a joint force of Scots and English Royalists rode south but were destroyed at Preston by an army under Oliver Cromwell.

What is significant about the Treaty Peace of Westphalia 1648? The Peace of Westphalia is regarded as a milestone in the development toward tolerance and secularization. This settlement also strengthened the imperial Estates: they could enter into foreign alliances and decide important matters, such as peace and war, along with the emperor.

What historical event happened in 1652?

The First Anglo-Dutch War (1652–54) began during a tense period following England’s institution of the 1651 Navigation Act, which was aimed at barring the Dutch from involvement in English sea trade. An incident in May 1652 resulting in the defeat of a Dutch force under Adm.

Why did Sweden get involved in the Thirty Years War?

Gustavus II (Gustavus Adolphus) of Sweden now came into the war. His territorial ambitions had embroiled him in wars with Poland, and he feared that Ferdinand’s maritime designs might threaten Sweden’s mastery of the Baltic.

What happened to the Holy Roman Empire after 1648?

After the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), no emperor again attempted, as Charles V had done, to reestablish a strengthened central authority; and the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 marked the empire’s final organization on federal lines.

What was life like in the 1600s in England?

What was life in the 1600s like? In the 1500s and 1600s almost 90% of Europeans lived on farms or small rural communities. Crop failure and disease was a constant threat to life. Wheat bread was the favorite staple, but most peasants lived on Rye and Barley in the form of bread and beer.

What happened in the 1600s in England?

April – Outbreak of bubonic plague epidemic in London in which between 29,000 and 40,000 die. 28 April – funeral of Elizabeth I in Westminster Abbey. 17 July – Sir Walter Ralegh arrested for treason. 21 July – Thomas Howard created the 1st Earl of Suffolk.

Why is 1648 marked by the creation of the treaties of Westphalia?

Why is 1648, marked by the creation of the Treaties of Westphalia, a seminal year for scholars of international relations? It marked a decrease of religious authority in Europe, and the rise of secular authority in the form of sovereign states.

What was the peace of Augsburg and what did it do?

It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christianity permanent within the Holy Roman Empire, allowing rulers to choose either Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism as the official confession of their state.

What were the main points of the Treaty of Westphalia?

According to the Peace of Westphalia, all parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555; Christians of non-dominant denominations were guaranteed the right to practice their faith; and the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad was recognized.

What happened in the year 1653?

January–June – The Swiss Peasant War is fought. January 3 – By the Coonan Cross Oath, the Eastern Church in India cuts itself off from colonial Portuguese tutelage. February 2 – New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. February 3 – Cardinal Mazarin returns to Paris from exile.

What happened in 1653 in the 13 colonies?

1653. The New England Confederation—a union of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies formed in 1643—plans to help England in the ongoing Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Massachusetts Bay colony flatly refuses to participate.

What is significant about the year 1994?

World Events Thousands dead in Rwanda massacre (April 6). South Africa holds first interracial national election (April 29); Nelson Mandela elected President. Israel signs accord with Palestinians (May 4), peace treaty with Jordan (Oct.

When did the 30 year war end?

The Thirty Years’ War ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which changed the map of Europe irrevocably. The peace was negotiated, from 1644, in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück. The Spanish-Dutch treaty was signed on January 30, 1648.

Why was the 30 years war so brutal?

Through a combination of plague, famine and violence, the conflict brought misery to people living across vast swathes of central Europe. The violence was, in many ways, a product of the large numbers of actors involved in the conflict.

What was the French phase?

Phase Four: The French Phase (1635-1648) He believed the Hapsburg rulers could become a rival to the French absolute kings he had worked so hard to strengthen. As a result, Richelieu funded and sent the military to Spain to make war on the weaker side of the Habsburg clan.

How did the HRE fall?

The Empire was formally dissolved on August 6, 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) abdicated, following a military defeat by the French Army under Napoleon (see Treaty of Pressburg).

Why was the Holy Roman Empire dissolved?

Austria’s defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz in December 1805 and the secession of a large number of Francis II’s German vassals in July 1806 to form the Confederation of the Rhine, a French satellite state, effectively meant the end of the Holy Roman Empire.

What happened in the 1600’s in America?

1600s. 1602 – Captain Bartholomew Gosnold is the first Englishman to land on the New England coast, exploring and naming Cape Cod and Martha’s Vineyard. 1605 – First capital of Acadia (French) was established as Port-Royal in modern-day Nova Scotia; it lasted until 1613. George Weymouth explores New England.

What happened in the 1500’s?

Ulrich Zwingli begins Reformation in Switzerland. Hernando Cortes conquers Mexico for Spain. Charles I of Spain is chosen Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sets out to circumnavigate the globe.

What was the role of a woman in the 1600s?

Women were widely viewed as emblems of Catholic morality, serving primarily as matriarchs of the domestic household. They were instructed and expected to become devoted mothers, and to rear and raise their children as proper Christians.

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